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Ten control systems of automation equipment
Views:2518 Date:2020-04-30
1. Controller: the brain of an automated factory
The controllers commonly used in automated factories include PLC and industrial computer.
The controller (English name: controller) refers to the master device that changes the wiring of the main circuit or control circuit and changes the resistance value in the circuit to control the start, speed regulation, braking and reverse of the motor in a predetermined order. It is composed of a program counter, instruction register, instruction decoder, timing generator and operation controller. It is a "decision-making body" that issues commands, that is, to complete the coordination and command of the operation of the entire computer system.
Programmable logic controller (ProgrammableLogicController, PLC), which uses a type of programmable memory for its internal storage program, executes logic-oriented operations, sequence control, timing, counting and arithmetic operations and other user-oriented instructions, and through digital or Analog input / output controls various types of machinery or production processes.
Industrial Control Computer (Industrial Personal Computer, IPC) is an industrial control computer. It is a generic term for a tool that uses a bus structure to detect and control the production process, electromechanical equipment, and process equipment. The industrial computer has important computer attributes and features, such as a computer CPU, hard disk, memory, peripherals and interfaces, as well as an operating system, control network and protocols, computing power, and a friendly human-machine interface. The products and technologies of the industrial control industry are very special and belong to intermediate products. They provide reliable, embedded and intelligent industrial computers for other industries.
2. Robots: determined implementers of automated factories
Robot (Robot) is a machine device that automatically performs work. It can either accept human command, run pre-programmed programs, or act according to the principles and programs formulated with artificial intelligence technology. Its task is to assist or replace human work, such as production, construction, or dangerous work. Robots are generally composed of actuators, drives, detection devices, control systems, and complex machinery.
3. Servo motor: powered muscles of an automated factory
Servomotor (servomotor) refers to the engine that controls the operation of mechanical components in the servo system, and is an auxiliary motor indirect transmission device. The servo motor can control the speed and the position accuracy is very accurate, and can convert the voltage signal into torque and speed to drive the control object. The rotor speed of the servo motor is controlled by the input signal and can react quickly. In the automatic control system, it is used as an actuator and has the characteristics of small electromechanical time constant, high linearity, starting voltage, etc., and can receive the received electrical signal. Converted to angular displacement or angular velocity output on the motor shaft. It is divided into two categories of DC and AC servo motors. Its main feature is that there is no rotation phenomenon when the signal voltage is zero, and the speed decreases with the increase of torque.
The servo system (servomechanism) is an automatic control system that enables the output controlled quantity of the object's position, orientation, state, etc. to follow any change of the input target (or given value). The servo is mainly positioned by pulses. Basically, it can be understood that when the servo motor receives one pulse, it will rotate the angle corresponding to one pulse to achieve displacement. Because the servo motor itself has the function of sending pulses, the servo motor Rotating an angle will send out a corresponding number of pulses. In this way, the pulses received by the servo motor form a response, or a closed loop. In this way, the system will know how many pulses were sent to the servo motor and how many pulses were received In this way, the rotation of the motor can be controlled very accurately, thereby achieving precise positioning, which can reach 0.001mm. DC servo motors are divided into brushed and brushless motors. Brushed motors have low cost, simple structure, large starting torque, wide speed range, easy control, and need maintenance, but maintenance is not convenient (change carbon brush), electromagnetic interference is generated, and the environment has requirements. Therefore, it can be used in general industrial and civil applications sensitive to cost.
4. Sensors: the tactile sensation of outside information in an automated factory
A sensor (English name: transducer / sensor) is a detection device that can sense the measured information and convert the sensed information into electrical signals or other required forms of information output according to a certain rule to meet the information Transmission, processing, storage, display, recording and control requirements. It is the first link to realize automatic detection and automatic control.
In modern industrial production, especially in the automated production process, various sensors are used to monitor and control various parameters in the production process, so that the equipment works in a normal state or the best state, and the products reach the best quality. Therefore, it can be said that without numerous excellent sensors, modern production will lose its foundation.
5. Inverter
Inverter (Variable-frequencyDrive, VFD) is a power control device that uses frequency conversion technology and microelectronic technology to control the AC motor by changing the frequency of the working power supply of the motor. The frequency converter is mainly composed of rectification (AC to DC), filtering, inverter (DC to AC), braking unit, drive unit, detection unit micro-processing unit, etc. The inverter adjusts the voltage and frequency of the output power supply by switching on the internal IGBT, and provides the required power supply voltage according to the actual needs of the motor, thereby achieving the purpose of energy saving and speed regulation. In addition, the inverter has many protection functions , Such as overcurrent, overvoltage, overload protection, etc.
6. Solenoid valve
Electromagnetic valve (Electromagneticvalve) is an industrial equipment controlled by electromagnetic. It is an automatic basic component used to control fluid. It belongs to an actuator and is not limited to hydraulic and pneumatic. Used in industrial control systems to adjust the direction, flow, speed and other parameters of the medium. Friends who love machinery can pay attention to the micro-signal of intuitive machinery. The solenoid valve can cooperate with different circuits to achieve the desired control, and the accuracy and flexibility of the control can be guaranteed. There are many types of solenoid valves. Different solenoid valves play a role in different positions of the control system. The most commonly used are check valves, safety valves, directional control valves, speed regulating valves, etc.
7. Industrial cameras: the eyes of an automated factory
The industrial camera is a key component in the machine vision system. Its most essential function is to convert the optical signal into an AFT-808 small high-definition industrial camera into an ordered electrical signal. Choosing the right camera is also an important link in the design of the machine vision system. The camera not only directly determines the resolution and quality of the collected images, but also directly relates to the operating mode of the entire system.
Industrial cameras are generally installed on the machine line instead of the human eye for measurement and judgment. The digital image acquisition target is converted into an image signal and sent to a dedicated image processing system. The image system performs various operations on these signals to extract the target's characteristics. Furthermore, according to the result of the judgment, the operation of the equipment on the spot is controlled.
8. Instrumentation
Instrumentation (English: instrumentation) Instrumentation is an instrument or equipment used to detect, measure, observe, calculate various physical quantities, material compositions, physical properties, etc. Vacuum leak detectors, pressure gauges, length gauges, microscopes, multipliers, etc. all belong to instrumentation. Broadly speaking, instruments and meters can also have functions such as automatic control, alarm, signal transmission, and data processing. For example, pneumatic adjustment instruments and electric adjustment instruments used in automatic control of industrial production processes, and distributed instrument control systems also belong to Instrumentation.
Because of the improvement of microelectronic skills, instrumentation products are further integrated with microprocessors and PC skills. The digitization and intelligence of instruments and meters have been improved from time to time, enabling new skills such as multimedia skills, human-computer interaction, trance control, and artificial neuron collection It is widely used in modern instruments.
Various kinds of instruments and meters need to be applied in the automated factory, such as measuring the pressure, liquid level, flow rate, temperature and other parameters required by the control process, and related instruments and meters are needed.
9. Automation software
Automation software plays an important role in industrial systems. Its main role is to control the automation of production processes. The rapid development of industrial control systems in technology, industry, and applications has gradually become highly integrated, intelligent, and networked. Development trends and characteristics. Due to the copyright of Industrial Control System Integrated Trend Control Engineering Network, the industrial control system is connected with the traditional IT management system and the Internet, and more and more general software, general hardware and general protocols are adopted internally. The more common is SCADA automation software.
SCADA automation system (supervisory control and data acquisition) is what we call data acquisition and monitoring system. It is mainly supported by computer technology, and it is a system for automatic scheduling control of various production processes. At present, SCADA software not only plays a large role in data and information collection and supervision and control in the petroleum, chemical and other industries, but also is widely used in the supervision of water conservancy and power utilities. SCADA automation software can automatically and accurately monitor production for a long period of time without supervision, and obtain effective information and data from it, providing a powerful evaluation reference for supervisors.
10. Control cabinet
The control cabinet includes many kinds, including electrical control cabinet, frequency conversion control cabinet, low voltage control cabinet, high voltage control cabinet, water pump control cabinet, power supply control cabinet, explosion-proof control cabinet, elevator control cabinet, PLC control cabinet, fire control cabinet, brick machine Control cabinet, etc.
The control cabinets of electrical, frequency conversion, power supply, water pump, etc. are involved in the automated factory. Different control cabinets are selected according to different needs to achieve different control functions.

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